Sero-Prevalence of Rubella Virus among Pregnant Women in Kaduna State Nigeria 2015

Aishatu Gubio, Steve Olonitola, Edward Jattau, Maryam Mukhtar

Abstract


ObjectiveTo determine the IgM and IgG antibodies of rubella viruscirculating among pregnant women in Kaduna State Nigeria.IntroductionRubella virus causes -“German measles,” also known as “three-daymeasles.” This is usually a milder disease than red measles. Red/Hardmeasles or just measles is caused by Rubeola virus. The result of acuteinfection of the virus is a benign systematic rash which is significantlypathogenic to humans. This virus is a, positive-strand RNA virus thatreplicates in the cytoplasm of the infected cell.(Brooks et al., 2007).If placental infection of the virus spread during 8-10 weeks gestationit causes a chronic infection of the fetus leading to the developmentof congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) (Matthewset al., 2011) Theeffect of the infection of the several organ systems which include theeyes, ears, heart, brain, and endocrine system is known as congenitalrubella infection (CRI) (Chantleret, al.,2001)Rubella is endemic in Nigeria. Studies among women of childbearing age in Nigeria put seroprevalence at 66.6% in Imo, 77% inLagos and 93.5% in Oyo (8-10). Thus as part of the control measure,the availability of an effective vaccine to prevent Rubella infectionand therefore CRS, is necessary to evaluate the burden of disease ina country where MMR vaccine is not covered in the immunizationschedule or in vaccination strategyMethodsA cross-sectional study carried out on pregnant women attendingante-natal clinic from the three different senatorial district in Kadunastate. Blood samples were screened for rubella IgM & IgG antibodyusing commercially produced enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), Questionnaires were administered to obtain demographicinformation and possible risk factors associated with rubella virus.Data was analzyed using Epi Info 6 Version 3.5.3.ResultsOf the 900 pregnant women screened, 572(63.3%) were positivefor rubella IgG. The prevalence of rubella IgG was highest among theage group 21-25 with 198(34.6%) and IgM was highest among theage group 21-25(51.3%). The IgG test results shows that 317 (66.0%)pregnant women tested positive for their first trimester, while the IgMpositive results shows 17(33.3%) for their first trimester. Although thesouthern senatorial district had the highest seroprevalence 14(35.9%)among the three centres, the differences were not statisticallysignificant (p>0.05). Only 3 people claimed to have been vaccinatedagainst rubella virus. Acquisition of primary education and being ahouse wife were insignificantly associated with raised titres. (p>0.05).ConclusionsThe serological evidence of rubella virus found in pregnant womenamong age group & their first trimester in this study is an indicationthat rubella is prevalent in Nigeria. It is however still necessary toimmunize seronegative women against rubella before they getpregnant.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5210/ojphi.v9i1.7790



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