Cryptosporidium in Wild Frogs ( Rana spp ) Consumed by humans in Kaduna State Nigeria

Grace Kia, Blessing I. Ukuma, Jerome Okpanachi, Mathias B. Odoba

Abstract


ObjectiveTo evaluate the occurrence ofCryptosporidiumspecies in ediblefrogs (Ranaspp) sold at the Hanwa frog market Zaria, Kaduna State,Nigeria.IntroductionSinceCryptosporidiumcan be transmitted by ingestion of infectedfood animals and poorly treated water and by direct contact1it ispossible for infection to occur through ingestion of under cookedfrogs and through handling and processing of infected frogs.In Burkina Faso frogs caught are sold to market-women who treatthe frogs by emptying their bowels and frying in oil before sellingthem, this is not always the case for the Nigerian frog markets wherefrogs are sometimes smoked or dried without necessarily been fried,before consumption2. This may pose a health risk for transmission ofcryptosporidiosis from infected frogs.Presence ofCryptosporidiumoocysts in frogs may by implicationreveal theCryptosporidiumstatus of water bodies from varioussources where the frogs were caught. Water management programmesfor treatment ofCryptosporidiumis difficult as the oocyst is resistantto several disinfectants including chlorine1. The consumption ofsuch treated water in urban areas and untreated water in mostrural communities may expose a great proportion of Nigerians tocryptosporidiosis. Owing to the number of HIV/AIDS patientswho commonly suffer from cryptosporidial enteritis and cough, thecontrol of cryptosporidiosis in animals and man is of public healthsignificance.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted between February andApril, 2016 using intestinal contents from wild capturedRanaspeciesof frogs (n=117), sourced from 8 different locations, from the frogcentral collection, sales and processing point at Hanwa in Zaria. Theintestinal contents from the frogs were examined by staining flotationand sedimentation smears with modified Ziehl-Neelsen stainsfollowed by microscopy and micrometry of the oocysts.ResultsOverall, 35.9% of frogs sampled from the Hanwa frog marketwere positive forCryptosporidiumoocysts. There were moreCryptosporidiumoocysts detected by sedimentation test (28.2%) thanflotation test (23.9%). Although there was no significant statisticalassociation between sex of frogs and oocyst detection (χ2=0.5349,p>0.05); sex wise, female frogs (40%) and frogs within the weightrange 170-219g were more infected withCryptosporidium(66.7%).Oocysts size ranging between 6.10μm -7.00μm, had the highestfrequency of 10 (23.8%). By size 28.2% of the oocysts detectedsuggest infection withC. parvumandC. maleagridis.ConclusionsWe present the first report ofCryptosporidiumoocysts in wildedible frogs (Ranaspp) sold at the Hanwa frog market Zaria, KadunaState, Nigeria. Frog consumption is on the increase in Nigeria, butbaseline information on associated zoonoses is rare. A cross-sectionalstudy conducted between February and April, 2016 using intestinalcontents from wild captured frogs (n=117), sourced from 8 differentlocations using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains and micrometryrevealed 35.9% were positive forCryptosporidiumoocysts.Of the oocysts detected 28.2% suggest infection withC. parvumandC. maleagridis,this may constitute a health risk for humans.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5210/ojphi.v9i1.7740



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