OJPHI: Vol. 5
Journal Information
Journal ID (publisher-id): OJPHI
ISSN: 1947-2579
Publisher: University of Illinois at Chicago Library
Article Information
©2013 the author(s)
open-access: This is an Open Access article. Authors own copyright of their articles appearing in the Online Journal of Public Health Informatics. Readers may copy articles without permission of the copyright owner(s), as long as the author and OJPHI are acknowledged in the copy and the copy is used for educational, not-for-profit purposes.
Electronic publication date: Day: 4 Month: 4 Year: 2013
collection publication date: Year: 2013
Volume: 5E-location ID: e166
Publisher Id: ojphi-05-166

Evaluating the Variation on Public Health’s Perceived Field Need of Communicable Disease Reports
Uzay Kirbiyik*13
Roland Gamache23
Brian E. Dixon23
Shaun Grannis13
1Indiana University, School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA;
2Indiana University, School of Informatics, Indianapolis, IN, USA;
3Health Informatics, Regenstrief Institute, Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA
*Uzay Kirbiyik, E-mail: ukirbiyi@iupui.edu

Abstract
Objective

To assess communicable disease report fields required by public health practitioners and evaluate the variation in the perceived utility of these fields.

Introduction

Communicable disease surveillance is a core Public Health function. Many diseases must be reported to state and federal agencies (1). To manage and adjudicate such cases, public health stakeholders gather various data elements. Since cases are identified in various healthcare settings, not all information sought by public health is available (2) resulting in varied field completeness, which affects the measured and perceived data quality. To better understand this variation, we evaluated public health practitioners’ perceived value of these fields to initiate or complete communicable disease reports.

Methods

We chose four diseases: Histoplasmosis, acute hepatitis B, hepatitis C and salmonella. We asked public health practitioners from Mar-ion County Health Department (MCHD) of Indianapolis to list the fields they felt were necessary when submitting a communicable disease report. We then asked them to evaluate those fields using the following criteria:

Required – A critical case attribute, when missing or unknown, would make the task of initiating and/or closing a case impossible or exceedingly difficult.

Desired – A case attribute allowing more complete epidemiologic profiles to be developed but, if missing, would not prohibit initiating and/or closing a case.

Not applicable – A case attribute that is not usually collected to initiate and/or close a case for the particular condition.

To quantify the need for the fields, we assigned a number to each response as follows:

0 - Not applicable 1 - Desired  2- Required

We summed the numbers for each field for each disease and created a table for the perceived need of that field (table 1).

Results

The perceived needs table showed a difference between the fields needed to initiate or close a case. Moreover the perceived need for fields varied by disease as well. To assess the difference in perceived needs, we calculated the standard deviation of the fields (table 2).

Conclusions

Data quality is essential, not only for research but to support routine public health practice as well. Many factors affect data quality; one of them is perceived need of the information by Public Health Practitioners. Despite working with public health stakeholders from the same organization we observed variation in their perceived needs for these fields to initiate or close a communicable case. These results highlight another source of the problem regarding health information quality and its goodness of fit issues.


Acknowledgments

We thank the MCHD of Indianapolis for their help with this research.


References
1.. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) June 1;2012 59(53):1–111. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5953a1.htm
2.. Indiana Confidential Report of Communicable Diseases - State Form 43823 (R2/11-96) https://forms.in.gov/Download.aspx?id=5082
3.. Wang R Y, Strong D M, Guarascio L M. Beyond accuracy: what data quality means to data consumersJournal of Management Information Systems 1996;12(4):5–33.

Tables
[TableWrap ID: t1-ojphi-05-166] Table 1 

Perceived need for the selected communicable disease reports fields. Higher numbers (darker color) reflect greater perceived need.


The perceived need for the field FUNGAL HEPATITIS ENTERIC
Histoplasmosis Hepatitis B-acute Hepatitis C Salmonella
Field Name Initiate Close Initiate Close Initiate Close Initiate Close Sum
Disease 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 64
First Name 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 64
Middle Initial 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 36
Last Name 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 64
Parent – First Name 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 28
Parent – Middle Initial 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Parent – Last Name 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 28
Phone Number 7 7 7 8 7 8 7 8 59
Street Number 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 60
Street Name 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 60
City 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 60
Zip Code 5 7 5 7 5 7 5 7 48
Country 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 60
Date of Birth 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 64
Age 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 28
Sex 6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8 56
Pregnant 3 4 7 8 4 5 3 4 38
Race 4 8 4 8 4 8 4 8 48
Ethnicity 4 7 4 7 4 7 4 7 44
Health Care Worker 4 5 3 3 3 3 5 7
Food Service Worker
School (student/staff)
Day care (attendee/staff) 33
Name of School/Day Care 4 5 1 1 1 1 4 7 24
Part of and Outbreak 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 6 34
Etiologic Agent 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 60
Site of Infection 6 8 0 0 0 0 6 8 28
Date of Diagnosis (m, d, y) 5 7 6 7 6 7 6 7 51
Symptoms associated with infection 5 8 6 8 5 7 5 8 52
If yes to Symptom: Onset Date (m, d, y) 5 7 6 8 5 7 5 7 50
If yes to Symptoms: Pertinent Symp/Signs 5 8 5 8 5 7 5 7 50
If yes to Symptoms: Died? (y/n) 6 8 6 8 6 7 7 8 56
Lab tests(s) and results(s) 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 64
Lab tests(s)/results(s) Date 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 60
Treatment (name of antibiotic) 4 8 1 1 1 1 5 7 28
Dosage 4 5 1 1 1 1 4 4 21
Date initiated 4 5 1 1 1 1 4 6 23
Antibiotic Resistance (y, n, nd) 1 1 0 0 0 0 4 5 11
If yes, what antibiotic? 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 7
Reporting Facility Code 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 20
If Hospital, Name Hospital 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 60
Name of Physician and Address 7 8 7 8 7 8 7 8 60
Record Number 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 44
Person Reporting (other than physician) 5 6 5 6 5 6 5 6 44
Telephone Number 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 56
Telephone Number (2) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 16
Date of Report 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 48
TOTAL (max possible 360) 223 273 210 248 204 241 233 285

[TableWrap ID: t2-ojphi-05-166] Table 2 

Standard deviation of perceived need values for each field. Higher numbers reflect more disagreement among responses.


The Disagreement for the field FUNGAL HEPATITIS ENTERIC
Histoplasmosis Hepatitis B-acute Hepatitis C Salmonella
Field Name Initiate Close Initiate Close Initiate Close Initiate Close Sum
Disease 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
First Name 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Middle Initial 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 1.73
Last Name 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Parent – First Name 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.00 2.00
Parent – Middle Initial 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 4.00
Parent – Last Name 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.00 2.00
Phone Number 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 2.17
Street Number 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 1.73
Street Name 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 1.73
City 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 1.73
Zip Code 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 3.46
County 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 1.73
Date of Birth 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Age 0.43 0.71 0.43 0.71 0.43 0.71 0.43 0.71 4.56
Sex 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.00 2.00
Pregnant 0.43 0.71 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.71 3.15
Race 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Ethnicity 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 1.73
Health Care Worker 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 3.03
Food Service Worker
School (student/staff)
Day Care (attendee/staff)
Name of School/Day Care 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.00 0.43 2.60
Part of an Outbreak 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.71 0.00 0.50 2.07
Etiologic Agent 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 1.73
Site of Infection 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 1.00
Date of Diagnosis (m, d, y) 0.43 0.43 0.50 0.43 0.50 0.43 0.50 0.43 3.67
Symptoms associated with infection 0.43 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.00 2.23
If yes to Symptoms: Onset Date (m, d, y) 0.43 0.43 0.50 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 3.10
If yes to Symptoms: Pertinent Symp/Signs 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 2.60
If yes to Symptoms: Died? (y/n) 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.50 0.43 0.43 0.00 2.37
Lab test(s) and result(s) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Lab test(s)/result(s) Date 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 1.73
Treatment (name of antibiotic) 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 2.60
Dosage 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.00 0.00 2.17
Date initiated 0.00 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.00 0.50 2.67
Antibiotic Resistance (y, n, nd) 0.43 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.43 1.30
If yes, what antibiotic? 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.47 0.47
Reporting Facility Code 0.47 0.82 0.47 0.82 0.47 0.82 0.47 0.82 5.15
If Hospital, Name Hospital 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 1.73
Name of Physician and Address 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.43 0.00 1.73
Record Number 0.43 0.50 0.43 0.50 0.43 0.50 0.43 0.50 3.73
Person Reporting (other than physician) 0.43 0.50 0.43 0.50 0.43 0.50 0.43 0.50 3.73
Telephone Number 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 0.43 3.46
Telephone Number (2) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Date of Report 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 4.00


Article Categories:
  • ISDS 2012 Conference Abstracts

Keywords: completeness, Data quality, Communicable disease reports.




Online Journal of Public Health Informatics * ISSN 1947-2579 * http://ojphi.org