First Monday <p><em>First Monday</em> is one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals solely devoted to resarch about the Internet. <em>First Monday</em> has published 2,083 papers in 303 issues,&nbsp;written by 3,013 different authors over the past 25 years. No subscription fees, no submission fees, no advertisements, no fundraisers, no walls.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain copyright to their work published in <em>First Monday</em>. Please see the footer of each article for details.</p> (Edward J. Valauskas) (Nancy John) Sun, 01 Aug 2021 04:06:26 -0500 OJS 60 A spatiotemporal approach for social media sentiment analysis <p>The rapid growth of user-generated unstructured data through social media has raised several challenges and research opportunities. These data constitute a rich source of information for sentiment analysis and help the understanding of spontaneously expressed opinions. In the past few years, many scientific proposals have addressed sentiment analysis issues. However, most of them do not take into account both spatial and temporal dimensions, which would enable a more accurate analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this approach has not received much attention in the literature. In this article, we formalized a spatiotemporal sentiment analysis technique and applied this technique to a case study of tweets about the FIFA 2014 World Cup. Our approach exploits the summarization of sentiment analysis using the spatial and temporal dimensions and automatically generates opinion change flow maps through both dimensions. The results enable the tracking of opinion change flow maps through spatial and temporal analysis.</p> Andre Alves, Cláudio de Souza Baptista, Davi Oliveira Serrano de Andrade, Maxwell Guimarães de Oliveira, Aillkeen Bezerra de Oliveira Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Sun, 25 Jul 2021 21:28:11 -0500 Breaching perpetual contact: Withdrawing from mobile and social media use in everyday life <p>This qualitative study aimed to investigate the norms and daily practices around mobile and social technology by examining what happens when mobile phones and social media on any devices are removed from one’s daily life. Most studies on technology non-use focus on one device or plat-form. In this study, participants (<em>N</em> = 78) relinquished not only social media but also their mobile phones for a 10-day period, and made observations on their experiences before, during, and after the “withdrawal.” Participants initially experienced guilt and anxiety over violating a social contract by not being available and reachable anytime and anywhere, but mostly found their social capital — particularly bonding social capital — reinforced through the withdrawal. On the personal front, participants (re)discovered certain “life skills” like memory, imagination, and creativity in navigating their physical world and spending their time.</p> André H. Caron , Kate K. Mays Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Sun, 04 Jul 2021 21:13:29 -0500 Gendered language and employment Web sites: How search algorithms can cause allocative harm <p>Research on algorithms and artificial intelligence in the hiring process tends to focus on applicant screening and is often centered on the employer perspective. The role played by intermediaries, such as employment Web sites in the distribution of information about employment opportunities, tends to be overlooked. This paper examines the role of search algorithms on employment Web sites and their retrieval of employment opportunities for job seekers based on gendered search terms. Through a basic algorithm audit of the search engines used by three major employment Web sites active in the Dutch job market, we explore whether their search algorithms neutralize or reinforce gendered language, in case of the latter thereby naturalizing stigmas and pre-existing bias. According to our findings, employment Web sites can cause allocative harm if they repeatedly fail to show all opportunities relevant to job seekers.</p> Karin van Es, Daniel Everts, Iris Muis Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Fri, 16 Jul 2021 09:25:40 -0500 Partisanship over security: Public narratives via Twitter on foreign interferences in the 2016 and 2020 U.S. presidential elections <p>Using a mixed methods approach, we explore the main narrative themes conveyed by the public, via microblogging platform Twitter, in regard to foreign interferences in the U.S. presidential elections of 2016 and 2020. Our findings show that rather than expressing serious concerns about foreign threats to the United States’ democracy and its electoral process, the tweets reflected the political polarization that has come to characterize the American public. Rather than perceiving the interferences as a national security issue, the public appeared to selectively use the foreign threats to bolster their partisan positions.</p> Catherine Luther, Benjamin Horne, Xu Zhang Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Sat, 24 Jul 2021 19:46:27 -0500 The problem of history in digital activism: Ideological narratives in digital activism literature <p>The past decades have generated a wealth of literature on digital activism. Even so, the phenomenon has been little historicised. This paper engages in a deconstructionist exercise on historical references in digital activism literature towards exploring implicit meaning-making in a symbolic-interactionist tradition. It identifies four distinct narratives: 1) a technology narrative [activism as technology-driven]; 2) a communications narrative [activism on the basis of communication options]; 3) an online-off-line narrative [activism based on an online-off-line dichotomy]; and 4) an engagement narrative [activism based on its affordances for public engagement]. The paper argues that these narratives contribute to a distinct, polysemic, and paradoxical understanding of digital activism as a phenomenon that is technologically driven (technological determinism), and both distinct to and enmeshed with traditional activism. In doing so, this narrative analysis shows a range of underlying ideological assumptions in digital activism study and conceptualisation, which informs how the phenomenon is understood today.</p> Suay Melisa Özkula Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Wed, 07 Jul 2021 20:39:01 -0500 Climate change communication on 4chan’s /pol/ board 2015-2019: An automated content analysis <p> is a popular imageboard Web site based on an unrivalled culture of anonymity. In the past, 4chan has often gained the public spotlight for its role in harbouring alt-right extremism, antisemitism and white supremacism, particularly within the controversial board /pol/, a forum dedicated to political discussions with over 140,000 posts per day and millions of unique monthly users globally. In response to a growing interest in online communication on climate change, this paper applies automated content analysis through probabilistic topic modelling to analyse how the online discourse around climate change has evolved on this platform over a five-year period between 2015 and 2019. Analysing a sample of 216,525 /pol/ posts, this study finds that, despite its reputation as a platform dominated by hate speech, discussions on climate change among /pol/ users remain primarily based on scientific content. However, this appears to be on a reversing trend, as discussions on race and nationalism are steadily overtaking scientific narratives. This paper also finds that a specific type of nationalism, labelled as climate nationalism is on the rise on this platform. Lastly, this study shows that interest in the status of scientific consensus on climate change, often considered a staple of discussions on climate change, is progressively falling in relevance.</p> Giulio Corsi Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Fri, 09 Jul 2021 09:27:53 -0500 The use and impact of metadata in civil cases <p>This article is one of the first to explore and delve into the legal system, with a focus on the burgeoning use of metadata in civil cases. Although metadata is embedded in all kinds of digital files including text, audio, and image files, as well as many social media and game applications, few understand how both the visible and embedded information is being “mined” (collected) for a myriad of uses by organizations, such as, Google or even the United States government. Consequently, in this paper, we explore the implications of metadata use in civil cases and how it could bring a new era of evidence in litigation, which has huge ramifications for how the average citizen may begin to view their privacy in the course of everyday activities.</p> Denise Russo, Abebe Rorissa Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Tue, 06 Jul 2021 12:01:08 -0500 Toward a purposeful design strategy for visually impaired Web users <p>The central premise of this research is the belief that using the Web non-visually is cognitively burdensome and tedious due to its complex, sight-centered design. There exists a literature gap on visually impaired (VI) users’ perceptions and experiences regarding Web site complexity. This paper reports the findings from a survey of 50 visually impaired individuals regarding perceived complexity and usability of a popular shopping Web site and its less complex version. Results show that significant gains in usability could be achieved by reducing complexity in Web design. A theoretical model of perceived complexity and associated propositions are presented to guide future research on improving the VI user experience of Web sites and Web applications.</p> Rahul Barpanda, Jared Reyes, Rakesh Babu Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Fri, 23 Jul 2021 13:08:05 -0500 “The disability becomes secondary”: The use of mobile devices by small business managers with a disability in Australia <p>This article summarises an original qualitative research investigation into the use of mobile devices by small business people with a disability in Australia. It uses the limited available published literature, social inclusion theories, and data from interviews with five small business people about their use of mobile devices, especially phones, and the experiences of five key informants. This project found no prior research that deals with the topic. Most businesses managed by people with a disability are home-based. By merging theories with praxis we show that they adapt mainstream apps to their own special needs. They improve their independence, expand their networks, and maximise opportunities for unique business uses.</p> Graeme Johanson, Misita Anwar Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Sat, 17 Jul 2021 09:42:02 -0500 Behind passwords: An analysis of preliminary results in order to understand how users protect their privacy <p>Nowadays, the Internet is the most common source of information, it is the means of almost any activity, such as shopping, online banking, getting informed or keeping contacts. Users need to know privacy regulations, read privacy and cookie policies to protect themselves against illegal or unwanted data use. The answers obtained to our questionnaire have been analyzed and they prove our hypothesis that users’ privacy awareness is low, and highlight that users need a deeper education in privacy protection. In our questionnaire people were asked general questions, such as “Do you always read cookie policies?” or “Do you have deep knowledge of privacy regulations?”, and more specific questions, such as “Have you ever used the Hungarian National eHealth Infrastructure (<em>EESZT</em>)?” or “Do you know that Facebook plugins follow all your online activities?”.</p> Tibor Roskó, Gergő József Szőllősi Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Sun, 18 Jul 2021 11:56:24 -0500 Leveraging blockchain based decentralized apps for the Tokyo Olympics amid the COVID-19 pandemic <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has induced a cloud of uncertainty over the mega sports event, the 2021 Tokyo Olympics. Cancelling or re-scheduling the event could have serious repercussions on the economic, social and environmental well-being for the involved stakeholders. Thus, it becomes critical to conduct events of this magnitude by adopting appropriate public health measures. In this research, we primarily focus on two main premises relative to public health and safety, contact tracing and crowd management. We explore and evaluate the usability of blockchain based decentralized apps in crowd management and contact tracing for the Tokyo Olympics using value-focused thinking (VFT). A VFT framework aids in narrowing fundamental and strategic objectives that need to be addressed for smooth contact tracing and crowd management by understanding stakeholder viewpoints. We established an equivalence of the objectives identified through VFT with blockchain technology properties. Further, we also present a conceptual ideation of contact tracing and crowd management through blockchain based decentralized apps for the Tokyo Olympics. This work could potentially assist decision-makers, researchers and stakeholders involved in organizing the Tokyo Olympics in understanding and analysing the utility of blockchain based decentralized apps for crowd management and contact tracing.</p> Rishi Sabarigirisan, Aditi Biswas, Ridhi Rohatgi, Shyam KC, Shekhar Shukla Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday Thu, 22 Jul 2021 06:40:58 -0500