First Monday https://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm <p><em>First Monday</em> is one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals solely devoted to resarch about the Internet. <em>First Monday</em> has published 2,061 papers in 301 issues,&nbsp;written by 2,975 different authors over the past 25 years. No subscription fees, no submission fees, no advertisements, no fundraisers, no walls.</p> University of Illinois at Chicago University Library en-US First Monday 1396-0466 <p>Authors retain copyright to their work published in <em>First Monday</em>. Please see the footer of each article for details.</p> The coming age of adversarial social bot detection https://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11474 <p>Social bots are automated accounts often involved in unethical or illegal activities. Academia has shown how these accounts evolve over time, becoming increasingly smart at hiding their true nature by disguising themselves as genuine accounts. If they evade, bots hunters adapt their solutions to find them: the cat and mouse game. Inspired by adversarial machine learning and computer security, we propose an adversarial and proactive approach to social bot detection, and we call scholars to arms, to shed light on this open and intriguing field of study.</p> Stefano Cresci Marinella Petrocchi Angelo Spognardi Stefano Tognazzi Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-05-10 2021-05-10 10.5210/fm.v26i7.11474 Cartographies of digital dissidence: Networked movements, Internet laws, and Internet Ungovernance Forums in Turkey and Brazil https://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11060 <p>Networked movements play a critical role in resisting political intimidation. Two such mobilizations that coincided in June 2013, Turkey’s Gezi Resistance and Brazil’s Vinegar Uprising, illustrate the tactical and strategic utilization of the Internet. Tellingly, Internet laws were amended in the aftermath of both events. While Turkey’s law took the direction toward an authoritarian digital geography for its user-citizens, Brazil’s <em>Marco Civil da Internet</em>, first seen as an ideal legal text, did not circumvent commercialization of the local network. While Internet laws were amended in the light of digital capacities revealed by networked movements, Internet Governance Forums — held in Turkey in 2014 and Brazil in 2015 — similarly aimed to dispose of digital dissidence, staging an uncanny alliance between transnational digital platforms and local central authorities. In response, counter-events occurred in Turkey and Brazil, entitled ‘Ungovernance Forums’. Though the Internet has been celebrated as a democratic architecture of information governed by universal protocols, this paper sheds light on how digital dissidents have been trapped in a tension between governance of the Internet and jurisdictional claims of nation states over their digital geographies. Lost in the popular discourse of the Internet providing a self-governing platform for social communication, have we missed the opportunity to imagine a future? Are we faced with the prospect of a hyper-securitized Internet that instead produces cartographies of authoritarian control that promise not a distributed and generative milieu but the very opposite?</p> Zeyno Ustun Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 10.5210/fm.v26i7.11060 Four years of fake news: A quantitative analysis of the scientific literature https://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11645 <p>Since 2016, “fake news” has been the main buzzword for online misinformation and disinformation. This term has been widely used and discussed by scholars, leading to hundreds of publications in a few years. This report provides a quantitative analysis of the scientific literature on this topic by using frequency analysis of metadata and automated lexical analysis of 2,368 scientific documents retrieved from Scopus, a large scientific database, mentioning “fake news” in the title or abstract.</p> <p>Findings show that until 2016 the number of documents mentioning the term was less than 10 per year, suddenly rising from 2017 and steadily increasing in the following years. Among the most prolific countries are the U.S. and European countries such as the U.K., but also many non-Western countries such as India and China. Computer science and social sciences are the disciplinary fields with the largest number of documents published. Three main thematic areas emerged: computational methodologies for fake news detection, the social and individual dimension of fake news, and fake news in the public and political sphere. There are 10 documents with more than 200 citations, and two papers with a record number of citations.</p> Nicola Righetti Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 10.5210/fm.v26i7.11645 Subtle Asian Traits and COVID-19 https://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10859 <p>This paper studies how members of Subtle Asian Traits (SAT), a massive Facebook group of over 1.8 million members, congregate and commiserate online over their growth pains and experiences as (diasporic) East Asians. Founded in September 2018 by a group of Asian-Australian teenagers ‘as a joke’, SAT members share ‘Asian positive’ stories, resources, and memes through an average of 1,200 new posts daily. Alongside global milestone events, such as the rise of K-pop in the Global North and Korean film <em>Parasite’s</em> unprecedented four awards at the Academy Awards, SAT has also evolved into a space to celebrate Asian excellence, tease out identity politics, and discuss issues of injustice. However, upon the onset of COVID-19, the posts on SAT have swiftly pivoted to the everyday lived experiences of (diaspora) East Asians around the world. In this paper, we reflect on our experiences as East Asian diaspora members on SAT, and share our observations of meaning-making, identity-making, and community-making as East Asians who are collectively coping with our cultural identities and with COVID-19 aggression. Specifically, we study how Asianness is negotiated, circulated, and commodified on SAT, and offer the concept of ‘platformed Asianness’ to understand how being Asian online is co-constructed by an international Asian diaspora, group admins, and the technological affordances of Facebook.</p> Crystal Abidin Jing Zeng Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-05-17 2021-05-17 10.5210/fm.v26i7.10859 Going rogue: Reconceptualizing government employees’ contentious politics on Twitter https://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11631 <p>In 2016, following the election of President Donald Trump, dozens of Twitter accounts emerged, purporting to represent a network of resistance within the U.S. government. These alt- and rogue- Twitter accounts, known as Rogue Twitter, shared tweets aiming to rebuke the administrations new information restrictions on federal agencies.</p> <p>Using established social movement theories, we investigated if Rogue Twitter is an online social movement. We qualitatively analyzed 43,569 original tweets from 102 Rogue accounts. We evaluated the tweets on three dimensions: Their attempts to challenge state institutions (macro-level), their organizing and mobilizing strategies (meso-level), and their shared understandings (micro-level).</p> <p>We found that the Rogue Twitter Movement exemplifies how online social movements engage in coordinated contentious activity via an online platform. Members of this network collectively framed as their main grievance the State’s control of information. Accordingly, their mobilization repertoire focused on calling the attention of the State and the public by openly criticizing the new information control policies. They strategically released controlled scientific information and demonstrated dissent by satirizing Trump. Moreover, they supported off-line political activity by promoting protests like the Science March. This study shows how incorporating multidisciplinary approaches yields nuanced understandings of protest in Internet platforms like Twitter.</p> Fatima Espinoza Vasquez Nicholas Proferes Troy B. Cooper Shannon M. Oltmann Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-05-18 2021-05-18 10.5210/fm.v26i7.11631 The value of sound: Datafication of the sound industries in the age of surveillance and platform capitalism https://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10302 <p>The current digital landscape is based on platform capitalism and on the cloud concept in which different services (music platforms, instant messaging services, live music companies, sellers, device companies, music major labels, radio players) try to control music/sound circulation. The new century started with the development of new devices — the iPod, smartphones, AI speakers — and distribution modes (podcasting, streaming) and the emergence of voice interaction to control devices. In this context, this paper develops a value chain defining the diverse key intermediaries in the management, accumulation, distribution, and access to information phases.</p> J. Ignacio Gallego Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-05-12 2021-05-12 10.5210/fm.v26i7.10302 Ugly media feelings: Negative affect in young cancer patients’ experiences of social media https://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11093 <p>In contemporary media culture, social media have become important publics of care for young people with a serious illness. While much previous research has focused on the positive aspects of online support networks, this article investigates the affective experience of what we call ‘ugly media feelings’, such as envy, shame, annoyance, irritation and scepticism, based on an in-depth interview study of 25 young Danish cancer patients’ (aged 15–29) experiences of social media. We argue that ugly media feelings can be analysed, firstly, as indirect revelations of the communicative ideals and media investments that young cancer patients make when they turn to social media during their illnesses and, secondly, as entangled with media cultural changes that have created new affectively unpredictable spaces for interacting about serious illness outside home and health institutions.</p> Carsten Stage Lisbeth Klastrup Karen Hvidtfeldt Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-05-16 2021-05-16 10.5210/fm.v26i7.11093 Tweeting on dementia: A snapshot of the content and sentiment of tweets associated with dementia https://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10452 <p>This study aimed to record and characterise tweets related to dementia, to investigate their content and sentiment. Data were extracted from Twitter over a period of six weeks during February and March 2019 and then analysed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) and AntWordProfiler. Using five search terms related to dementia, this study collected 860,383 tweets (more than 27 million words). Results have shown that out of all the collected tweets, 48.63 percent of tweets related to the search term ‘dementia’, 49.95 percent to ‘Alzheimer’s disease’ and the remainder related to frontotemporal dementia, Lewy Body dementia and vascular dementia. People wrote more positively and personally about the term ‘dementia’ than the other terms, and more technically regarding the term ‘Alzheimer’s disease’. All search terms had a negative emotional tone overall. Dementia and related terms are commonly discussed on Twitter. The overall negative emotional tone associated with all dementia related search terms suggests that dementia is still largely stigmatised and talked about negatively. Recommendations for future research include the development of a health world list or a dementia world list, and to consider how the results of this research inform social change interventions going forwards.</p> David Robertshaw Ivana Babicova Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 10.5210/fm.v26i7.10452 Librarians as Wikimedia Movement Organizers in Spain: An interpretive inquiry exploring activities and motivations https://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/11482 <p>How do librarians in Spain engage with Wikipedia (and Wikidata, Wikisource, and other Wikipedia sister projects) as Wikimedia Movement Organizers? And, what motivates them to do so? This article reports on findings from 14 interviews with 18 librarians. The librarians interviewed were multilingual and contributed to Wikimedia projects in Castilian (commonly referred to as Spanish), Catalan, Basque, English, and other European languages. They reported planning and running Wikipedia events, developing partnerships with local Wikimedia chapters, motivating citizens to upload photos to Wikimedia Commons, identifying gaps in Wikipedia content and filling those gaps, transcribing historic documents and adding them to Wikisource, and contributing data to Wikidata. Most were motivated by their desire to preserve and promote regional languages and culture, and a commitment to open access and open education.</p> Laurie Bridges Clara Llebot Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-05-09 2021-05-09 10.5210/fm.v26i3.11482 'Getting by’ on 4chan: Feminine self-presentation and capital-claiming in antifeminist Web space https://www.firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10449 <p>The Internet imageboard 4chan is often believed to be a hub of fascism, white supremacism, and violent misogyny. The popular press associates 4chan with ‘incels’ (involuntarily celibate men), using the site to vent their rage at women. Yet a significant minority of posters on the site are female, and/or present themselves as such. These posters use various strategies to negotiate a space for identity-construction and to build subcultural capital within an antifeminist Web space, a striking development in what Amy Shields Dobson calls the process of ‘getting by’ in postfeminist neoliberal culture. By quantifying and analysing these strategies, whilst restraining the rush to ethical judgement typical to discussion of 4chan, this study aims to resituate 4chan’s feminine users from passive objects of violence to active participants in the site’s culture and influence.</p> Judith May Fathallah Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-05-19 2021-05-19 10.5210/fm.v26i7.10449