First Monday <p><em>First Monday</em> is one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals solely devoted to resarch about the Internet. <em>First Monday</em> has published 1,988 papers in 294 issues,&nbsp;written by 2,845 different authors over the past 24 years. No subscription fees, no submission fees, no advertisements, no fundraisers, no walls.</p> University of Illinois at Chicago University Library en-US First Monday 1396-0466 <p>Authors retain copyright to their work published in <em>First Monday</em>. Please see the footer of each article for details.</p> Chatbot-mediated public service delivery <p>Chatbots — computer programs designed to interactively engage with users, replicating humanlike conversational capabilities during service encounters — have been increasingly deployed across a wide range of Internet-based public services. While chatbots provide several advantages (<em>e.g.</em>, improved user experience with reduced waiting times to service access), the surge of chatbot use in public service delivery has frequently been plagued with controversy, poor publicity, and legal challenges. One important reason for this is that users of the services, and the wider public, do not always feel that chatbot-mediated services demonstrate the appropriate <em>public service values</em>. We investigate the public service value dimensions required in chatbots designed for use in the public sector. Specifically, we (a) review chatbots and their use in the delivery of public services; and, (b) develop a framework of how public service values can be exemplified by chatbots. Our study provides implications and evaluation criteria for stakeholders in chatbot assisted public services, including researchers, public managers, and citizens.</p> Tendai Makasi Alireza Nili Kevin Desouza Mary Tate Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-11-05 2020-11-05 10.5210/fm.v25i12.10598 Should users participate in governing social media? Philosophical and technical considerations of democratic social media <p>In recent years, a plethora of well-known data scandals has led to calls for alternative forms of social media governance. What challenges of institutional design would have to be met for developing meaningful democratic governance structures for a social media platform? Intertwining philosophical and technological considerations, this article explores the possibility and feasibility of democratically governed social media. We focus on the necessary technological requirements that guarantee secure voting for social media user participation. While we provide several arguments in favor of democratically governed social media from within, we argue that it should not be considered as an alternative to social media regulation from the outside.</p> Severin Engelmann Jens Grossklags Lisa Herzog Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-11-23 2020-11-23 10.5210/fm.v25i12.10525 Framing 'digital well-being' as a social good <p>This contribution argues that companies such as Apple, Facebook, and Google are increasingly incorporating features that supposedly promote “digital well-being” to forestall regulation of their platforms and services. The inclusion of these features, such as Apple’s Screen Time, frames these commercial platforms as providing a social good by promising to encourage more “intentional” or “mindful” use of social media and mobile devices. As a result, oft-critiqued platforms are increasingly adopting the language of their critics in order to frame themselves as a social good. This strategy mimics that used by radio executives in the United States in the early twentieth century, where the medium developed as a predominantly commercial enterprise. To avoid regulation, it became necessary to perpetuate the perception that commercial broadcasters were also a social good that fulfilled a public service function. Platforms today, we assert, are inadvertently or purposefully adopting a similar tactic to position themselves as leaders in a developing digital wellness market in the hopes of avoiding future governmental regulation.</p> Alex Beattie Michael S. Daubs Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-11-23 2020-11-23 10.5210/fm.v25i12.10430 Rebel reviewers: Social media review pages as sites of Confederate memorial discourses <p>Online review platforms — such as Facebook Pages, Yelp, and Google Reviews — host millions of user-generated posts. Some reviewers choose to use these platforms to share political opinions and calls for activism. One example of this phenomenon, UNC–Chapel Hill’s “Silent Sam” Confederate statue review page on Facebook, provides an opportunity to examine comments from users asserting their pro-statue and anti-statue opinions. While protestors removed the statue in August 2018, its unofficial page (and its posts) remains visible online and continues to garner new “reviews” after the monument’s physical removal. This study analyzes the engagement publicly visible on Silent Sam’s Facebook reviews. Despite the large volume of research on social network sites, the author is unaware of any studies of activist posts on online review spaces. Discovering the most prevalent claims made in pro-Confederate posts will help educators, activists, online moderators, and creators of Terms of Service agreements determine where they can (and should) respond to racist rhetoric.</p> Laura March Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-11-23 2020-11-23 10.5210/fm.v25i12.10221 Culture by design <p>This article investigates a moment of the big data age in which artificial intelligence became a fixed point of global negotiations between different interests in data. In particular, it traces and explicates cultural positioning as an interest in the artificial intelligence momentum with an investigation of the unfolding of a European AI policy agenda on trustworthy AI in the period 2018–2019.</p> Gry Hasselbalch Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-11-23 2020-11-23 10.5210/fm.v25i12.10861 A city as a virtual community — Several perspectives <p>We are currently dealing with the emergence of cities as virtual communities. They should be considered in terms of a specific relation of the local urban space with the cyberspace and rejection of dichotomy of the territory versus deterritorialization. The article characterizes city as a virtual community from several perspectives: 1) Resurgence of locality and changes in the nature of interpersonal relationships; 2) Changes in the understanding of public and private space; 3) The impact of the city as a virtual community on social capital; 4) The possibilities of big data generated within the virtual community; 5) Possibilities of involving city dwellers in the process of local governance; and 6) encouraging them to social activity. The Internet brings a huge change in the perception and experience of the city and we must do everything to use this change for the benefit of urban residents.</p> Piotr Siuda Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-11-23 2020-11-23 10.5210/fm.v25i12.10596 Food foraging online: Exploring how we choose which recipes to search and share <p>Lifestyle and personality can often be discovered through daily food choices. For instance, influence through social groups, food documentaries or the desire for fitness/weight loss can often create a shift in people’s food choices. These changes in diet can highlight important life events, an overall lifestyle change or an individual’s culture. One way to study people’s cultural food patterns is to study the language they use to share recipes. This is especially important as new recipes can now be discovered with the click of a button as opposed to traditional recipe books, creating online recipe sharing communities. Users can share their most personal or newly learned recipes as well as create a dialogue of feedback or suggestions. Given that food is a major component of our physical and emotional well-being, the focus of this research was to investigate food communication among online communities. In study 1, topic modeling analysis was performed on recipes taken from the popular social networking sites (<em>N</em> = 32,944) to identify 11 major themes around the consumption of food. Next, study 2, a replication study, used identical topic modeling analysis on the SNS (<em>N</em> = 190,808) to identify 13 themes. Implications of these groupings, as well as the social and personal settings users reported trying the recipes, are discussed, along with limitations and suggestions for further study.</p> Kate G. Blackburn Jonnie Hontanosas Kinda Nahas Karishma Bajaj Rachel Thompson Abbie Monaco Yaretzi Campos Tien Tran Shania Obregon Everett Wetchler Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-11-23 2020-11-23 10.5210/fm.v25i12.10863 Infodemic amid the COVID-19 pandemic <p>The unfortunate arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic has also brought along with it a tsunami of information that can be both authentic and important as well as non-reliable and misguiding. The World Health Organization (WHO) coins this outburst of information in this era of pandemic as an infodemic. It becomes essential for societies to consume and act on trusted information in these times of uncertainty and grief. In this article, we describe and assess the role of blockchain technology and its features to establish an environment of a trusted information ecosystem. We present an equivalence mapping of these important parameters to curb an infodemic with blockchain technology features and applications. This equivalence mapping provides a directional sense to stakeholders, decision-makers, policy-makers and investors to gauge and synthesize the potential of blockchain technology for tackling an infodemic.</p> Shekhar Shukla Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-11-23 2020-11-23 10.5210/fm.v25i12.10811