First Monday <p><em>First Monday</em> is one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals solely devoted to resarch about the Internet. <em>First Monday</em> has published 2,093 papers in 304 issues,&nbsp;written by 3,031 different authors over the past 25 years. No subscription fees, no submission fees, no advertisements, no fundraisers, no walls.</p> University of Illinois at Chicago University Library en-US First Monday 1396-0466 <p>Authors retain copyright to their work published in <em>First Monday</em>. Please see the footer of each article for details.</p> Not too deep: Privacy, resistance, and the incorporation of social media in background checks <p>In May 2016, the United States Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) issued “Security Executive Agent Directive 5” (SEAD-5) (U.S. ODNI, 2016) authorizing the collection, use, and retention of social media information for the personnel security clearance process (PSCP), a process put in place to screen applicants for eligibility for national security and public trust positions. The incorporation of social media was a watershed moment for this process as social media, and even information from the entire Internet, had not been allowed into the investigation process before. The integration was not without resistance to the implementation, though, and backstage concerns about privacy emerged in Congressional hearings. What is most interesting to note, however, is that the resistance was for the most part in support of privacy for the potential employees of whom were receiving the check and the government’s obligations for the information collection; however, there was little, if any, mention of deeper, possibly problematic privacy concerns for the social media platforms and their mediated connections that co-create a second, derivative type of content beyond the access of their users. This paper examines the hearing “Incorporating social media into federal background investigations” in response to the SEAD-5 to see what the U.S. Congress did and did not discuss at the hearing and explores potential explanations for the inclusions/omissions, ultimately answering how those in charge of policies could have overlook deeper privacy complexities, and evaluating what this can mean for government, privacy, and policy researchers.</p> Sarah Young Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-08-07 2021-08-07 10.5210/fm.v26i9.11591 Facebook’s policies against extremism: Ten years of struggle for more transparency <p>For years, social media, including Facebook, have been criticized for lacking transparency in their community standards, especially in terms of extremist content. Yet, moderation is not an easy task, especially when extreme-right actors use content strategies that shift the Overton window (<em>i.e.</em>, the range of ideas acceptable in public discourse) rightward. In a self-proclaimed search of more transparency, Facebook created its Transparency Center in May 2021. It also has regularly updated its community standards, and Facebook Oversight Board has reviewed these standards based on concrete cases, published since January 2021. In this paper, we highlight how some longstanding issues regarding Facebook’s lack of transparency still remain unaddressed in Facebook’s 2021 community standards, mainly in terms of the visual ‘representation’ of and endorsement from dangerous organizations and individuals. Furthermore, we also reveal how the Board’s no-access to Facebook’s in-house rules exemplifies how the longstanding discrepancy between the public and the confidential levels of Facebook policies remains a current issue that might turn the Board’s work into a mere PR effort. In seeming to take as many steps toward shielding some information as it has toward exposing others to the sunshine, Facebook’s efforts might turn out to be transparency theater.</p> Catherine Bouko Pieter Van Ostaeyen Pierre Voué Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-08-09 2021-08-09 10.5210/fm.v26i9.11705 A platform for underclass youth: Hanmai rap videos, social class, and surveillance on Chinese social media <p>With increasing influence on everyday social interactions and cultural practices, social media platforms do not just represent but also profoundly reproduce various forms of social inequalities. This essay investigates what role social media have played in the emergence of an underclass habitus among Chinese youth. By focusing on the rise and fall of a participatory <em>hanmai</em> culture on Kuaishou, an underclass-centric social media platform in China, the study identifies social media platforms as key actors in restructuring power relations. Chinese social media platforms, particularly Kuaishou, produce contemporary relationships of power by simultaneously incorporating algorithm design, profit-seeking strategies, underclass users’ expressions, and state surveillance. The overall effect is to mediate, regulate and buttress social inequalities in the process of sustaining Chinese class stratification. This analysis necessarily problematizes and debunks the myth of technological neutrality claimed by social media platforms. The result is that Chinese underclass youth (individual and unexpected acts of human agency aside) are routinely subjected to and reproduced through the logic of both capitalist accumulation and state authoritarianism via their participation on these social media platforms.</p> Jiaxi Hou Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-08-25 2021-08-25 10.5210/fm.v26i9.10587 Understanding London’s church tweeters: A content analysis of church-related tweets posted from a global city <p>This study builds on the findings of previous research into church-related tweets by considering and analysing the content of 1,004 tweets containing the word “church” which were posted from within Greater London during a 10-week period. The qualitative analysis of the resultant Twitter dataset enabled the research team to validate a previously proposed coding framework for church-related tweets, subject to a minor change, and provide new evidence around the types of content discussed in church-related tweets posted from across all London boroughs. This paper concludes by drawing-out some of the key lessons which sociologists of religion can learn by exploring church-related tweets.</p> Anthony-Paul Cooper Joshua Mann Erkki Sutinen Peter Phillips Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-08-11 2021-08-11 10.5210/fm.v26i9.10594 Theory of change: Driving a digital school in rural Pakistan <p>This paper reports the findings of the initial phase of a longitudinal study that aims to investigate barriers to digital literacy in rural Pakistan. The research employs the Theory of Change to plan various stages of a digital literacy program for young children living in a remote area of Pakpattan, Pakistan. A Digital Access Vehicle (DAVe) was deployed as an innovative tool to introduce digital literacy for those who were unable to travel to the project’s NGO partner headquarters to access DAVe’s array of digital technologies. An interpretive case study approach is used to perform in-depth analysis of the subject under investigation by conducting one-on-one interviews and focus groups with key informants. The contributions of this research are twofold: (a) it operationalizes the Theory of Change to systematically plan a social impact project in a resource-constrained developing country; and (b) it creates a better understanding of barriers hindering digital literacy of young children in rural areas of a developing country such as Pakistan.</p> Ashir Ahmed Jason Sargent Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-08-15 2021-08-15 10.5210/fm.v26i9.10304 Disability and access to courts: Assessing the accessibility of U.S. federal judiciary homepages thirty years after the ADA <p>Using basic accessibility standards, the presence or absence of essential usability features, and site accessibility statements, this study evaluates the accessibility of the home pages of the federal judiciary — those of the U.S. district, Appellate and specialty courts, the Administrative Office of U.S. Courts (AO), the Federal Judicial Center (FJC), and the main homepage of PACER, the federal judiciary’s e-filing and e-records access system. Software evaluations reveal detected instances of a narrow set of accessibility issues, including scripts with no accompanying functional text, images/server-side image maps with no text equivalents/descriptors, and inaccessible forms. Manual evaluations of Web sites show a high proportion (about 67 percent) of the home pages provided skip navigation links, whereas smaller proportions provided direct or indirect links to accessibility information — about 15 percent and 12 percent, respectively, as well as controls for manipulating font size (about 12 percent). Notably, a sizeable proportion (about 45 percent) of home pages provided direct or indirect links to a “BrowseAloud” explanation and download page, apparently in lieu of information on accessibility. Finally, content analysis of existing Web site accessibility pages and policy statements show a high degree of variation, with some being exceptionally detailed and informative, and some less so.</p> Mamadi Corra Ian McCandliss Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-08-12 2021-08-12 10.5210/fm.v26i9.11435 ASMR explained: Role play videos as a form of touching with the eyes and the ears <p>In this paper, I introduce and discuss technologically-mediated ASMR (Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response) in the form of role play videos. I suggest using <em>haptic audio-visuality</em> as a theoretical elaboration to describe a form of touching with the eyes and the ears through interpersonal triggers, direct address and directional touching. And I present ASMR role play videos as a category that can be viewed as <em>both</em> a shared pleasure <em>and</em> a personal experience. Despite its mediated — body-to-screen rather than body-to-body — and one-way format, research suggests that ASMR can be regarded as an intimate, present and interpersonal experience. ASMR has succeeded in integrating the viewer-listeners’ physical reality with virtuality and creating a perception of presence. What is missing, however, is a more in-depth exploration of how this perception of presence is created through the performative construction of a particular kind of <em>attuned, imaginative and interactive viewer-listener</em> within ASMR role play videos. This is what I intend to explore in this paper.</p> Helle Breth Klausen Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-08-19 2021-08-19 10.5210/fm.v26i9.11691 Instagram influencer marketing: Perceived social media marketing activities and online impulse buying <p>The main objective of this research is to investigate the impact of social media marketing activities — restricted only to Instagram influencers — on online impulse buying through the mediating effect of source credibility (attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness), predicated on Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) theory. The hypothesised relationships were examined using cross-sectional data obtained from 273 Instagram users. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) using the SMART-PLS software was employed as the primary data analysis method. The results revealed that the perceived social media marketing activities of Instagram influencers have a significant positive influence on the perceptions of followers pertaining to all three dimensions of source credibility (attractiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness). In turn, only attractiveness and trustworthiness were found to have a significant positive influence on online impulse buying. Moreover, this study revealed that it was the perceived attractiveness and trustworthiness of Instagram influencers that were the influential mediating factors in the relationship between perceived social media marketing activities and online impulse buying. There is a dearth of studies that have been conducted on the examination of the mechanism through which Instagram influencers’ social media marketing activities influence online impulse buying. This study is significant as it provides new insights into the importance of Instagram influencers social media marketing activities in affecting followers’ online impulse buying through source credibility.</p> Kian Yeik Koay Chai Wen Teoh Patrick Chin-Hooi Soh Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-08-18 2021-08-18 10.5210/fm.v26i9.11598 News aggregators and copyright in the European Union and the United States in the digital age: Evolution, comparisons, and implications <p>News aggregators have triggered copyright-related disputes between tech companies and news publishers. In the EU and the U.S., copyright systems have developed distinct characteristics. Because American tech companies stand to be hugely affected by the EU’s new copyright rules, some observers point out that the copyright war in Europe is fundamentally a collision between European and American copyright law systems. To respond to this observation, this study examines and compares European and U.S. perspectives on copyright and uses copyright as a lens to explore how digital platforms that aim at global influences provide the opportunity for different legal systems and legal traditions to converse and conflict. Through the comparison, this study argues that fundamental issues such as the nature of news are not effectively addressed in either system. While the EU and the U.S. present different regulatory trends in the case of copyright, a two-way shaping is at play.</p> Qun Wang Susan Keith Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-08-21 2021-08-21 10.5210/fm.v26i9.11680 The promise and the premise: How digital media present big data <p>This paper analyzes the thematic and discursive construction of big data by the Argentine digital press. Using text mining techniques — topic modelling and enriched associative networks — together with qualitative and quantitative content analysis — in both discourse and images — over 2,026 articles, we sought to identify the topics wherein big data is treated, the promises and risks it addresses, its definition within the semantic field in which is explicitly expressed, and the pictures that illustrate it. Results herein presented compare how big data is portrayed in news about politics, business, and technological innovations, as well as in focal pieces targeted to a generic and massive audience, and critical reflections about its risks. Although in each of those thematic contexts big data is anchored differently, there is a common idea that associates big data with a socio-technological premise and an epistemic promise: because of the availability of large volumes of data, something new that will allow better decisions can be known. Our exploration contributes to a more detailed knowledge on how the news media social systems make sense of novel phenomena such as big data.</p> Gastón Becerra Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 10.5210/fm.v26i9.10539 Blackboards and chalk, to the rescue: A review of Do not erase: Mathematicians and their chalkboards Edward J. Valauskas Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-09-02 2021-09-02 10.5210/fm.v26i9.12284 Lem on our side: Reviews of Stanisław Lem’s The truth and other stories and Dialogues Edward J. Valauskas Copyright (c) 2021 First Monday 2021-09-04 2021-09-04 10.5210/fm.v26i9.12286