Toxic femininity 4.0

  • Roopika Risam Salem State University


This paper examines constructions of toxic femininity within fourth-wave feminism. Taking hashtag feminism as its focus, this article contends that charges of toxicity lobbed online reproduce divisive dynamics that have shaped earlier trends within feminist movements in the United States. It further suggests that Twitter, as a platform, amplifies deep discomfort with theories of intersectional feminism while shaping how normative gender is reproduced online.

How to Cite
Risam, R. (2015). Toxic femininity 4.0. First Monday, 20(4).