Hijacking the urban screen: Trends in outdoor advertising and predictions for the use of video art and urban screens
First Monday

Hijacking the urban screen: Trends in outdoor advertising and predictions for the use of video art and urban screens by Raina Kumra

By tracking the use of non-traditional forms of outdoor advertising in static media there is a strong indicator for time based media (video, animation, interactive and generative video arts) to take a leading role in broadcasting art while serving the goals of the corporations that own these screens. Apart from the initial use of the "video billboard" in commercial and advertising based applications, the city is responding to its new media skin with more creative and interactive executions. Case studies in this paper document some of the first experiments utilising video at the urban screen level and show how the press and public relations value of these projects is more beneficial to the advertiser and the community than spending on traditional advertising.


Guerrillas Love Outdoor
Video, Art and Economics
Innovation Brands
Case Studies





Over-saturation of traditionally executed and traditionally placed advertisements is rendering most outdoor advertising ineffective. The intended audience automatically filters out the high-gloss billboards and the industry model is changing to recapture their attention. Methods such as guerrilla marketing, corporate sponsorship of art projects and events, and other PR (public relations) generating activities are gaining momentum. As urban screens at both small and large scales are becoming popular for advertising, video content must also participate in this new structure of art and commerce. This paper serves to assess the trends in static outdoor media and apply these findings towards the future use for video content in the urban sphere.

As advertisers increasingly harness the talents of famous artists and underground graffiti writers to freshen the delivery of their clients’ communications, the screen of the traditional video billboard, upon which we are so used to viewing outdoor advertising, implodes into the fabric of the city. The city becomes the screen itself as a new media skin layers upon the built space in inventive ways.

From the moments of art displayed in Times Square on the Reuters building and Creative Time's "59th Minute" project on the Astrovision screen to the small scale video art displayed in retail environments of every city - video art and ambient media are displacing the full frontal commercial use of screens in the urban environment. The phenomenon is still quite embryonic, but as screens continue to pop up everywhere, more of them can be devoted to artistic purposes. At the same time, more brands are seeking an arts partnership, and alternative formats for distributing their brand message. It is a symbiotic co-optation where agencies are appropriating art and art is appropriating advertising.

This paper was originally titled Art vs. Advertising, but as research progressed, the “versus” gave way to an ampersand and the issue was not about an oppositional relation, but rather one that is dialectical and demonstrative of some practical and mutually beneficial modes of achieving both artistic and commercial tasks in the realm of urban screens. In reviewing Paul Rutherford’s book, The New Icons: The Art of Television Advertising, Beth Seaton shortcuts to his conclusion: “Quite simply, ads are art because they have the ability to “make meaning,” to turn the ordinary into the extraordinary (Seaton, 1995, P. 5).” Additionally, the role of sponsorship in art has finally become acceptable, without compromising the integrity of either party:

“Webster’s dictionary defines a sponsor as “a business that finances a program in return for “advertising” and a “godparent.” Ideally, sponsorship benefits both parties. Artists: give the companies credit for taking risks. Companies: give the artists money for taking risks. Everybody wins in this equation (Fairey in McGinness, 2003 pp 17-19).”

In most instances, video advertising on public screens is not an obvious task outlined in a standard agency media buy. Screens of all sizes are a very important forum as most Americans know (Stilgoe, 2001) and continually growing in importance to the corporate advertising world through cell phones and other handheld devices. The underlying reason for the interest in experimental forms of advertising is the fact that this activity directly affects local sales. The paper describes several loopholes whereby artwork infiltrates the advertiser’s world and benefits both parties. These loopholes come in the shape of brands needing PR and cache (Ries and Ries, 2002), in the form of corporations willing to take risks, and in the form of designers and art directors at agencies who know how to cater to both audience and client. The loopholes are the points where experimentation with media and branding occur to satisfy the PR agendas of both artists and corporations.



Loopholes in the traditional practice of advertising and symbiotic relations between the artist and the advertiser are beneficial to the general public and to the field of advertising. The loopholes are actually opportunities for artists to take a leading role in terms of the use of content, format and experimentation upon the urban screens. The artist’s playfulness improves the overall reception of the commercial form and allows the viewer to attach deeper meaning to the advertisement (Columbo et al, 1999). This movement towards partnering with artists is raising the bar for the street credibility of many brands and will also impact video work on urban screens by influencing our contemporary visual culture with higher standards overall and cure the visual pollution that occupies many public screens.

Occasionally, even a simple non-traditional placement of a static advertisement is enough to induce a response. The same goes for video art or ads, when projected onto a sidewalk instead of displayed on a screen inside of a store window; the effectiveness is improved simply by utilising the element of surprise (Gilmore and Pine, 2002). This element of surprise is what comprises the bulk of guerrilla marketing initiatives.

Currently, many clients do not realise that throwing content on a twenty-foot screen can impact public space enormously. To the agency, it is just another project added to the out-of-home budget that should be executed quickly and on-brand. In some ways this is beneficial, because designers and creatives are able to ideate freely, with less scrutiny from the client. However, the standard surrounding video media on outdoor screens is developing and as more creative and successful projects come into the public sphere, all advertising agencies will be forced to pay more attention to and document their work process in urban media projects. The loopholes in advertiser’s agendas are the entry points to experimentation with messaging and format and go hand in hand with guerrilla marketing.


Guerrillas Love Outdoor

"The more media messages we get, the fewer we listen to" (Warr, 2005, p.1)[1]

Advertising these days wants to bring commercial messages to screens of all kinds: computer screens, giant urban screens on building facades and point-of-sale in stores, as well as the personal screens on videogames and cell phones. But, if we are exposed to an estimated 86,500 television commercials per year (Ries and Ries, 2002) our filters for screen based adverting are already on full power. The next logical push is to extend beyond the screen.

Interactive projects and street theatre are also part of the guerrilla movement. Increasing documentation and interest in these types of projects to literally engage the user, such as projections on the sidewalk and projects using sensors (Kiersten and Muller, 1998) are popping up as advertising experiments across industries. Museums and galleries, which are public-private hybrid spaces, are also leading the way in creating dynamic, interactive content in kiosks and audio devices, and corporations are learning from these trials as well (Sayre, 2005).

Why are more and more advertisers turning away from the standard formats? With the addition of new tools such as interactivity and mobility as well as repurposing artistic styles – the possibilities are endless. Looking deeper into cultural trends has been standard practice, but acting on this research has never been as pronounced as it is today. “[The most successful] will be brands and businesses that create genuine emotional connections with the communities and networks they live in. This means getting up close and personal,” states Kevin Roberts of Saatchi & Saatchi.[2] The sheer amount of graffiti writers turning up in ad campaigns is indicative of this trend as well. For example, Time magazine tapped Cope II to create an outdoor ad for the magazine in Soho. McDonald’s uses graffiti to woo the Latino market. Ken Ebo, the chain’s regional marketing director states, “We wanted something that reflects the lifestyle of the Hispanic consumer.”[3] Beginning in the 1990’s corporate sponsors began spending money to appear un-corporate and they will continue to do so (Glickman in McGinness, 2003) .

Cultural reasons aside, there is a certain ‘cool’ factor and street credibility that could never be achieved with a properly photographed advertisement. Graffiti artists, Tats Cru created a mural for Coca Cola and for Hummer, which of course was quickly defaced by ‘real’ graffiti, enhancing its authenticity. Critical Massive is a company that helps graffiti artists get paid for their work and gets them corporate jobs such as those described above. They have done work for Nike, Levis and Axe. Nissan and Napster joined in with some sidewalk stamping along with the famous stencil campaign by Linux, which all reveal that the movement is in full force amongst Fortune 500 companies. Currently, Xbox and Playstation have hit Brooklyn with character based graffiti and stencils. “It is the difference between basic marketing and strategic innovation. These days, for most brands, traditional marketing tactics equate to disaster. We need to move from being in the ad business to being in the experience business,” states David Gensler, a leading youth marketer.[4] The understanding is clear for corporations: they must cater to their audience, and the audience craves freshness.

Public relations is a main reason why brands and owners of urban screen real estate would engage in any artistic activity, as the financial qualifier is still the bottom line – even for the most established of brands. Most people determine what is best by finding out what other people think is best. Two major sources for making that determination are the media and word of mouth. Noted PR experts Al and Laura Ries explain, “You have to depend on the eyes and ears of third party sources. The Editorial pages are such a powerful tool.” [5]

Adam Glickman, publisher of international culture magazine Tokion explains how the seemingly non-corporate artist such as a graffiti writer or t-shirt designer willingly participates in the PR machine: “Its highly relevant that this is a group of artists who came of an age in an era that’s going to be remembered as the Golden Age of Marketing. Looking back 30 years from now, we’ll probably belly laugh at the obnoxiously obvious branding culture in which people willingly and actively spent their hard-earned money to advertise corporations. This group of artists grew up watching this strange conformist culture grow from an outsider’s perspective, and many started their art careers as an ironic poke at it. It’s also no coincidence that almost every one of these artists in question came from either a graffiti or skateboarding background. They are natural outsiders, but outsiders with a natural understanding and comfort with the concept of marketing themselves and their art (Glickman in McGinness, 2003 pp.21-22).”

Aside from the large scale LED screen and billboards, out-of-home is the fastest growing category[6] for advertising including a wide range of media including in–tunnel, street performances and events, and hotspots. As corporate culture embraces the non-traditional, traditional advertising will all but disappear. In the cityscape, it is ethnographic as well as design research that will be a larger part of the development of content for the screen.

Many video screens hold ill-designed content for the large screen format, and could display better visuals, culturally specific advertisements and occasionally, fund a public art piece. Use of the screens in a manner much more conducive to the public sphere has entered the brands and advertisers consciousness. Interactive possibilities also push the design. Using the screens for way finding, informational and community purposes would draw the passer-by in since the video is serving a function and becomes something more than an intricate light source.


Video, Art and Economics

In media heavy cities such as Tokyo, Las Vegas and New York the economic factors for displaying commercial pieces vs. art pieces relies a great deal on the maintenance costs of the screens themselves. Some of these screens have paid for themselves already and although it is quite expensive, new affordable technologies will be hitting the market in the next few years. The LED is a flawed tool and is very expensive to take care of. Maintenance and installation costs are the major stumbling block for corporations to donate time to art. However, new visualisation methods, which are not LED based, are being developed by forward thinking companies such as Quantum Vision, which will eventually address the cost issues, and finally expand the use of the screens to those who could not afford them before.

As the saturation point with traditional advertising on the large and small screens has nearly been reached, and the demand for ever more creative content rises - why would a company want to do something standard, when for the same media buy, they could do something dynamic? If the minimum production cost of a thirty-second soft drink or snack commercial is $530,000 and jumps to $1,053,000 for apparel, and if a brand is not seeing results, they begin to use some of these funds for other media experiments. According to Reuters executives, most of the large screen budgets will come out of a client's interactive, TV or outdoor ad spending and can run around $30,000 and up. This is a significantly smaller ad to produce and when paired with guerrilla media tactics, the results are much better than simply running a TV commercial (Gilmore and Pine, 2002) .

Street marketing campaigns are a lot less expensive than traditional rollouts and more successful as well. Additionally, the value of PR that comes from either participating in an arts sponsorship or engaging in guerrilla media is the golden ticket. Young Kim, a partner in Alife Creative, a New York based design shop explains: “From a corporate standpoint, working with an artist makes good sense, not simply in terms of the credibility but the creativity. Instead of paying a big advertising firm huge amounts of money, they can give an artist chump change to do a better job (McCormick in McGinness pp 25-31).”

Al and Laura Ries, PR experts and authors describe the benefits:

“There are many disadvantages to PR. You can’t control the content, you can’t control the timing, and you can’t control the appearance of your message. You can’t be sure that any of your messages will be delivered.

But the one advantage of PR makes up for all its disadvantages.

PR has credibility, advertising does not[7].”

In 2003, traditional advertising channels made up 80 percent of the entire budget and digital signage occupied less than 1 percent. But things have changed, as everyone knows. Consumers have become accustomed to tailoring their experience through TIVO and broadcasting ads through traditional media only captures a small percent of the audience. The digital signage market will experience double-digit growth in the next few years and will become a major channel with size comparable to traditional media.[8]

Video signage as a technology has identified its place. When married to well designed content, its value skyrockets. Although art is supposedly pure and non-commercial in its motivations, when integrated with the public commercial sphere – it benefits all parties as it brings press, sales and otherwise unattainable respect for corporations.


Innovation Brands

Kevin Roberts, CEO of Saatchi & Saatchi describes innovation brands with a biological metaphor, “When species change, it almost always occurs first at the fringes. Here the population is sparse and the orthodoxies of the center are the weakest. Here you can flourish isolated from the formula and rules, free from the corrosive belief that everything great has already been done.”[9] The more forward thinking companies, or innovators in their respective markets are raising the bar of what creative advertising actually is. For example, many people that have worked on brands like Nike feel that it is an innovation brand. The message is that they are innovators in product design, and innovators in everything they touch -- advertising and branding included. Companies such as this are an obvious friend for artists, as they have an already established track record of dipping into the ‘genuine’ talent pool, and are constantly seeking out an original non-agency concept.

Innovation brands such as these listed here demonstrate the cross industry range: Panasonic, LVMH, Calvin Klein, Prada, Samsung, AXE, Red Bull, Sony, Nike, Intel, Microsoft, Ebay, Nokia, Target, Adidas, BMW, Motorola, Google as well as veterans in the field like Tylenol, Snapple, Altoids, Absolut and Procter & Gamble. Industries such as high tech, communication and fashion are obvious choices, but by no means comprises an exhaustive list of where to look for opportunities to for artist partnerships. The pharmaceutical market has had surprising success with well-designed viral campaigns. This past summer, Nokia and Target combined forces to sponsor the PS1 Warm Up (an offshoot of the MOMA). The parties included DJ’s and giveaways as well as art installations. The press loved the sponsorship, and gave them mention in every New York events calendar, a feat that would have normally cost them much more.

Even for companies where it seems a bit of a stretch to market themselves this way. There are many industries unassociated with design movements, such as feminine products or pet food, which are also buzz hungry.[10] Point-of-sale video is also an untapped area for art as retailers such as Macy’s, The Gap, Foot Locker and Wal-Mart. Wal-Mart’s “In Store Television Network” reaches some 130 million viewers every four weeks, putting it directly behind the major networks such as NBC, CBS, ABC and Fox.[11]

As we have seen in the previous examples, symbiotic relationships between screen providers and artists can work out very well. Many companies have an interest in research and people centred design, and in funding public art. It is common for industries across the spectrum to try on an arts association, and the public accepts these alignments. As graphic artist and author Ryan McGinness explains, “While the goal of an artist it so focus him- or herself in an effort to make great work, great work takes time to make. And time is money. Since the primary goal of a corporation is to make money, there’s a natural link there (Ryan McGinness, 2005 pp.9). The movement towards more symbiotic relationships between art and commerce is a natural one.



The most effective influence occurs when the person being influenced doesn’t realise it is happening (Cialdini in Walsh, 1993). The element of surprise, as used in guerrilla marketing techniques since the 1990’s are becoming more effective as commercials are cloaked as art.

Commercial and artistic objectives are no longer at odds with each other due to changes in the traditional advertising structure. Jaded, over-messaged consumers crave innovative design. Artists and designers benefit from new exposure and expressive freedom. Advertisers are willing to pay for urban video experiments, and will increasingly do so in the next few years as the quest for editorial press becomes paramount in getting the consumers attention.

As more and more screens arrive in airports, museums, schools, day cares, restaurants and bars, retail stores, shopping malls, conference centres, company lobbies, grocery stores, medical facilities, hotels and motels, theatres and casinos these should each present a different opportunity to house good design and showcase artwork. Brands are constantly in need of buzz-worthy press and re-branding themselves to seize more of youth culture spending money.

For artists, working with corporations, no longer holds the connotations of “selling out” as it once did. Haze, an artist designer in the hip hop record industry regards the co-branding of today as “realizing you can become a part of corporate culture and take advantage of its multi-media infrastructure both in terms of visibility and economics without ultimately compromising your vision or integrity (McCormick in McGinness, 2003 pp.27).” The business model in the art world is also changing, creating an environment where natural benefits are available for all parties.

Corporations cannot survive without artists and artists cannot thrive without corporate money. Jacqui Miller, an artist and theorist states, “Culture is a networked consciousness. It would be interesting if a brand approached sponsorship as a “medium” to effect real change…[it] would empower corporations to stop producing the “real” and start nurturing the “real” – to participate in an era of extraordinary integrity (Millar in McGinness, 2003 pp.37).” Our branded culture revolves around the freshness provided by artists and the excitement of the unusual pairings and surprising placements that these partnerships can bring.

The integrity of artist, consumer and company are protected as our society comes to resemble more of a gift economy. Art is the gift to the public provided by the corporations, the public respects the companies for the gift, and in return happily buys the product or experience that are sold with the artist endorsement. Large and small screen advertising is set to become a perfect medium for the distribution of artistic and corporate gifting. Artistic content upon the screens in the urban environment will be the increasing focus of advertising spending in the next few years.


Case Studies

There are some key motivating factors that lead to the development of artistic content for both the building owner as well as the advertiser. One popular desire is to achieve architectural transparency as demonstrated in Diller Scofidio + Renfro’s Moscone Convention Center and Lincoln Center projects and ESI’s Reuters sign. Although not technically art content, the Reuters sign also has a complex shape and backend system so that the content for this sign must always be custom designed, which results in better ads and showmanship overall. Another top motivator and opportunity, especially for high tech and media companies is the desire to appear connected to information highways. This is evidenced in most every Times Square marquee but also specifically in the Reuters and Bloomberg projects. For other brands, the opportunities for art arrive when a brand wants to achieve some cache with a younger crowd through street style or need to spin-doctor their messages by appearing altruistic with an arts sponsorship. The 59th Minute project is also an example where donating their screen for a few minutes a day has given Panasonic great press which far outweighs selling the ad space. Below are some of the best case examples to take notes from.

The Reuters Sign
The sign consists of 7,000-square-foot video screen that descends in a narrow strip from the roof making it 290 feet tall and expands into four large screens that hang off the side of the building. It is also integrated with the video screens inside the building that pedestrians can view. When describing the initial idea the designer, Edwin Schlossberg, said he wanted a "big window into the building". [12]

Figure 1: The Reuters Sign, a 7,000-square-foot video screen that is fully interactive
Figure 1: The Reuters Sign, a 7,000-square-foot video screen that is fully interactive

The sign was designed by ESI and R/GA and is fully interactive and able to link to cell phones and other sources of media. “Reuters asked ESI to design a dynamic signage system that would enhance the awareness of their brand in the mind of the consumer. Historically, Reuters has been a wholesaler of the news, and not top of mind for the general consumer. In this age of greater access to the source material of the news, it is essential that Reuters have more of a public face,” says lead interactive designer Gideon D’Arcangelo.

In designing the content platform, ESI was aware that Times Square was already overtaxing the pedestrian eye. "We're in such a weird moment where people are desperate for more information but inured by so much," says Dr. Schlossberg. The designers decided to put all advertising on a third party platform, and allow the main content of the sign to reflect information in a calm, emotive way. They did not want to add to the noise of Times Square, but rather wanted to stand out by establishing a quieter rhythm. This way, the sign could still generate revenue, but the designers would control the overall effect. Additionally, content for a sign such as this must be expertly designed and custom crafted, meaning a repurposed television ad does not have any place on this sign. It works as a natural aesthetic filtering system.

Moscone Center
Diller Scofidio + Renfro has just finished a permanent installation, Facsimile commissioned by San Francisco Arts Commission, for the Moscone Convention Center in San Francisco.

Figure 2: The Moscone Center's 16-foot high by 27-wide LED video screen
Figure 2: The Moscone Center's 16-foot high by 27-wide LED video screen

It consists of 16’ foot high by 27’ wide LED video screen that rides on a horizontal tracking system and takes feeds from several cameras that are pointed both into and away from the building. The screen is a roving window, or so it seems, but the live footage is seamlessly blended with pre-recorded footage of offices, and hotel rooms. Pedestrians for the most part, cannot tell the difference between the real and the virtual. This use of an LED screen is the first of its kind, and Diller Scofidio + Renfro has led the precedent, in order to get a tax- exemption since LED screens on the sides of buildings have never been used for public art purposes.

Senior associate at DS+R, Matthew Johnson describes how visitors to the convention centre have found a hidden marketing tool in the art project, “ many companies have taken advantage of it and used it as free advertising and promotion by setting their company logo up in front of one of the cameras. We don't manipulate the feed at all, so they could have their message up on the LED screen for some amount of time.” This activity doesn’t affect the artistic integrity of the piece, but only serves to make it more genuine.

Facsimile was funded by the San Francisco Arts Commission and is unusual for a project of this magnitude not to have a corporate sponsor, especially when utilising the LED screen. The city of San Francisco was forward thinking enough to realise that it was a worthy experiment in media, architecture and technology and has now set the bar for other public art projects intending to use video.

Creative Time
The 59th Minute is a groundbreaking project launched in 2000 and probably one of the best examples of pure art content entering the commercial sphere. The 59th Minute airs the last minute of every hour of the Panasonic Astrovision screen in Times Square. The programming day begins at 6 am and ends at 1 am with the exception of the hours of 7-10 am and 6-7 pm when NBC uses the screen for its news programming.

Figure 3: The 59th Minute project: pure art content on Times Square
Figure 3: The 59th Minute project: pure art content on Times Square

It began in 2000 with a special screening of Tibor Kalman’s “Tiborisms; Tibor in Orbit”. The 59th Minute has been a consistent platform for the presentation of new and historic video by both emerging and established artists.[13] It has featured work by some of the most well known video artists of our time including Jeremy Blake, William Wegman, Thomas Struth, Fischli & Weiss, William Kentridge and Kim Sooja. The 59th Minute’s goal is to offer artists a special opportunity to present their work in the public forum of Times Square and allow them to stand out in the midst of the chaos, offering moments of reflection. Yael Reinharz, who directs The 59th Minute program describes how the donation from Panasonic benefits all parties, “We get a lot of press for this program, not only because of the strength of the programming but due to the many other projects we do in association with the video presentation, from connecting to museum shows to performances with the artists to lectures with the artist.” The press loves the project and Panasonic receives accolades as the sponsor as well as PR that cannot be bought, and Creative Time gets to feature cutting edge artwork and events.

Basically, all parties, from artists, to civic institutions to corporations are happy in an arrangement like this.

Bloomberg’s corporate headquarters in Manhattan glisten with video terminals and lobby displays. The displays combine informational aspects as well as atmospheric and styled data visualisation video content. Lisa Cohen, one of the designers of the internal video systems describes why the company invested in videos in the first place, “ Our internal sign system is part of our brand and identity. The image that we want to convey is that it is an exciting place to work. So basically, it fits within our brand to have a lot of different television screens, showing information, and content flowing about... we're not a staunchy conservative company.”

Figure 4: The Link display in the main lobby of the Bloomberg building, stretching over 40 feet
Figure 4: The Link display in the main lobby of the Bloomberg building, stretching over 40 feet

In terms of creating content for multiple displays as well as the Link display, which is the main lobby display that joins the two halves of the building together, the designers find they have a two-fold task. First is practicality and second is design. The Link display is made up of 4 bands of video stretching over 40 feet. The bands break up and recombine following the curve of the cylindrical tower. Daktronics, Pentagram and Bloomberg designed it. Cohen explains how the design for this type of screen is not under the same scrutiny as the design for their television terminals:

I think it is an open forum, and we're able to do whatever we want because it is not TV- it is not meant for actual detailed information. We're pushing the envelope in information and technology together… It is very liberating from a design standpoint… It is more about perceiving the data - you can push more art and design in there because of this type of display…

This piece of data driven video also falls describes many opportunities where the design must be more interesting than the data, and it also must be easily perceived for the passer-by's view. Cohen also comments on the fact that the audience is in a different mindset when viewing non-traditional video screens:

One of the reasons why designing for large screens is so liberating is that the audience is migratory and fleeting. People don’t wait around for a large video sign to get information to help make any kind of business decision. That’s what the Bloomberg terminal is for. On a large screen, people just need an essence, not hard news.

The Link display is breathtaking and the content for it is anything but standard fare due to the designers and the company understanding that large-scale screens need to be treated differently.End of article

About the author

Raina Kumra is a freelance interaction designer and producer for interactive and video projects. She holds a Master of Design Studies in Digital Media and Production Environments from Harvard Graduate School of Design and an MPS from New York University’s Interactive Telecommunication Program. Her research and lecture areas include public media art, interaction design in the built environment, air travel analysis and branding of countries. She has worked in the advertising and marketing industries since 1999.
E-mail: rainasun [at] yahoo [dot] com


I am grateful to Ramesh Srinivasan, Vikram Kansara and Tom Igoe for their editing, theoretical and overall suggestions in the re-focusing of this paper.


1. Source: http://www.forbes.com/2005/01/20/cx_0120findsvp_print.html

2. Kevin Roberts Lovemarks; the future beyond brands

3. http://ad-rag.com/121908.php

4. http://if.psfk.com/when/archives/interview_with_david_gensler_of_the_kdu.html

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6. Source: http://www.psaresearch.com/outdooradsize.html

7. The Fall of Advertising & The Rise of PR. Al Ries and Laura Ries 2002, Harper Collins Publisher

8. Dynamic Digital Signage - The New Age of Advertising By Yvonne Li & Greg Gilbert, ADurance Inc.

9. Kevin Roberts Lovemarks; the future beyond brands

10. Resources for this section are taken from DTI global watch mission report – Innovation through people centred design – lessons from the USA (October 2004) Edited by Nina Wakefield – University of Surrey. These companies have had focused seminars that have dealt with user centred designing and advertising.

11. Dynamic Digital Signage - The New Age of Advertising By Yvonne Li & Greg Gilbert, ADurance Inc.

12. Wired New York forum. David W. Dunlap December 30, 2001. http://www.wirednewyork.com/forum/showthread.php?t=3390

13. http://creativetime.org/programs/archive/59/index.html



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Copyright ©2006, First Monday

Copyright ©2006, Raina Kumra

Hijacking the urban screen: Trends in outdoor advertising and predictions for the use of video art and urban screens by Raina Kumra
First Monday, Special Issue #4: Urban Screens: Discovering the potential of outdoor screens for urban society

A Great Cities Initiative of the University of Illinois at Chicago University Library.

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